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Elemen ini merupakan salah satu elemen terpenting ketika Anda sedang mempelajari bahasa Inggris karena sebagian besar aktivitas bahasa Inggris (Speaking dan writing) menggunakan tenses agar apa yang dimaksud dan disampaikan dimengerti. Menurut beberapa sumber, apabila Anda sudah mengetahui semua tenses, bisa dikatakan 60% kemampuan bahasa Inggris telah Anda dikuasai. Ketika Anda tidak menggunakan rumus dari tenses pada kalimat yang Anda buat, Anda pasti akan dikatakan salah, jadi ketika Anda sudah paham dari rumus-rumus tenses berarti Anda sudah bisa berinteraksi/ berbicara/ bercakap ataupun memahami kalimat. Jika Anda mengetahui tenses, bisa dipastikan Anda tahu semua tata bahasa atau gramatikal dalam bahasa Inggris karena semua gramatikal atau tata bahasa yang Anda pelajari tidak terlepas dari susunan katanya. Apabila Anda membuat kalimat dalam bahasa Inggris, Anda harus tahu apakah itu bentuk sekarang, bentuk masa lalu atau masa yang akan datang.


Tabel Jenis-jenis Tenses



SIMPLE

CONTINUOUS

PERFECT
PERFECT
CONTINUOUS

PRESENT
Simple
Present
Present
Continuous
Present
Perfect
Present
Perfect continuous

PAST
Simple
Past
Past
Continuous
Past
Perfect
Past
Perfect
Continuous

FUTURE
Simple
Future
Future
Continuous
Future
Perfect
Future
Perfect
Continuous
PAST FUTURE
Simple
Past Future
Past Future
Continuous
Past Future
Perfect
Past Future
Perfect
Continuous

Tabel Pembatu dan Pelaku




SIMPLE

CONTINUOUS

PERFECT
PERFECT
CONTINUOUS

PRESENT
do = I, you, the we, names  
does =She, He, It, name
Is = She, he, it, name
am = I
are = you, we, they, names
have = I, you, the we, names  
has =She, He, It, name
have been = I, you, the we, names  
has been =She, He, It, name

PAST
did = I, you, the we, She, He, It, name/swere = you, the we, names  
was =I, She, He, It, name
had = I, you, the we, She, He, It, name/shad been = I, you, the we, She, He, It, name/s

FUTURE
willI, you, the we, She, He, It, name/s 
shall = I, we
will beI, you, the we, She, He, It, name/s 
shall be = I, we
will haveI, you, the we, She, He, It, name/s 
shall heve = I, we
will have beenI, you, the we, She, He, It, name/s 
shall heve been   = I, we
PAST FUTURE
WouldI, you, the we, She, He, It, name/s 
should = I, we
wouldI, you, the we, She, He, It, name/s 
should = I, we
wouldI, you, the we, She, He, It, name/s 
should = I, we
would have beenI, you, the we, She, He, It, name/s 
should heve been  = I, we

Tabel Penggunaan Kata kerja (Verb)



SIMPLE

CONTINUOUS

PERFECT
PERFECT
CONTINUOUS

PRESENT
(+) Verb 1(s/es)
(-) Verb 1
(?) Verb 1
(+) Verb ing
(-) Verb ing
(?) Verb ing
(+) Verb 3
(-) Verb 3
(?) Verb3
(+) Verb ing
(-) Verb ing
(?) Verb ing

PAST
(+) Verb 2
(-) Verb 1
(?) Verb 1
(+) Verb ing
(-) Verb ing
(?) Verb ing
(+) Verb 3
(-) Verb 3
(?) Verb3
(+) Verb ing
(-) Verb ing
(?) Verb ing

FUTURE
(+) Verb 1
(-) Verb 1
(?) Verb 1
(+) Verb ing
(-) Verb ing
(?) Verb ing
(+) Verb 3
(-) Verb 3
(?) Verb3
(+) Verb ing
(-) Verb ing
(?) Verb ing
PAST FUTURE
(+) Verb 1
(-) Verb 1
(?) Verb 1
(+) Verb ing
(-) Verb ing
(?) Verb ing
(+) Verb 3
(-) Verb 3
(?) Verb3
(+) Verb ing
(-) Verb ing
(?) Verb ing
Note: untuk Kalimat (+) Simple Present, Verb1 menggunakan (s/es) apabila pelakunya termasuk golongan does. dan khusus untuk kalimat (+) simple present dan simple Past belum menggunakan pembantu.

Pembahasan disertai contohnya berikut ini.

1. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
Tense ini digunakan untuk menyatakan kegiatan sehari-hari dan digunakan untuk menyatakan kebenaran umum.
PENGGUNAAN KATA KERJA BANTU:
A. Kalimat Nominal
Rumus :
(+) Subject + am/is/are + Complement
(-) Subject + am/is/are + not + Complement
(?) Am/is/are + Subject + Complement

Contoh :
* I am handsome (Saya tampan).
* She is a dentist (Dia adalah seorang dokter gigi).
* They are singer (Mereka adalah penyanyi).
PENGGUNAAN KATA KERJA BANTU:
B.   Kalimat Verbal
Rumus :
(+) Subject + Verb 1 (s / es) + Complement
(-) Subject + do/ does + not + Verb 1 + Complement
(?) Do / Does + Subject + Verb 1 + Complement
Contoh :
We play football together.
* He buys a book.
* My mother cooks in the kitchen.
* The sun rises in the east
Catatan:  Complements adalah kata selain kata kerja yang meliputi,
   - Noun               = kata benda
   -Adjective        = Kata sifat
   -Adverb            = kata keterangan


 

2. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
Tense ini digunakan untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung di waktu sekarang.
A. Kalimat Nominal
Sama dengan Nominal Simple present tense.

PENGGUNAAN KATA KERJA BANTU:
B. Kalimat Verbal
Rumus :
(+) Subject + am/is/are + Verb-ing + Complement
(-) Subject + am/is/are + Verb-ing + not + Complement
(?) Am/is/are + Subject + Verb-ing + Complement
Contoh :
* We are singing now.
* She is blowing the candle.
* They are building the stable.
3. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
Tense ini digunakan untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan dalam waktu yang tidak tentu dimasa lampau dan biasanya membawa akibat dimasa sekarang.
A.  Kalimat Nominal
PENGGUNAAN KATA KERJA BANTU:
Rumus :
(+) Subject + Has/Have + been + Complement
(-) Subject + Has/Have + not + been + Complement
(?) Has/Have + Subject + been + Complement

Contoh :
* I have been here for an hour.
* He has been in Sidney since two years ago.
B.  Kalimat Verbal
Rumus :
(+) Subject + Has/Have + Verb 3 + Complement
(-) Subject + Has/Have + not + Verb 3 + Complement
(?) Have/Has + Subject + Verb 3 + Complement
Contoh :
* Mr. Ali has finished taught the students.
* Rudi and Firman have played badminton.



4. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
Tense ini digunakan untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang dimulai pada masa lampau dan masih berlangsung sampai sekarang.
A. Kalimat Nominal
Sama dengan Nominal present perfect tense
B. Kalimat Verbal
PENGGUNAAN KATA KERJA BANTU:
Rumus :
(+) Subject + Has/Have + been + Verb-ing + Complement
(-) Subject + Has/Have + not + been + Verb-ing + Complement
(?) Have/Has + Subject + been + Verb-ing + Complement

Contoh :
* The policeman has been chasing the robber for two hours.
* My brother has been sleeping since six o’clock.

5. SIMPLE PAST TENSE
Tense ini digunakan untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang terjadi pada waktu lampau.
PENGGUNAAN KATA KERJA BANTU:
A. Kalimat Nominal
Rumus :
(+) Subject + was/were + Complement
(-) Subject + was/were + not + Complement
(?) Was/were + Subject + Complement
Contoh :
* I was in Jakarta last month.
* You were angry last time.
* She was sad yesterday.
PENGGUNAAN KATA KERJA BANTU:
B. Kalimat Verbal
Rumus :
(+) Subject + Verb 2 + Complement
(-) Subject + did + not + Verb 1 + Complement
(?) Did + Subject + Verb 1 + Complement
Contoh :
* I wrote the letter for you yesterday.
* He replied the message a few minutes ago.
* They came to my house last week.




6. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE
Tense ini digunakan untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang berlangsung ketika peristiwa yang lain terjadi diwaktu yang lampau.
A. Kalimat Nominal
Sama dengan Nominal past tense
PENGGUNAAN KATA KERJA BANTU:
B. Kalimat Verbal
Rumus :
(+) Subject + was/were + Verb-ing
(-) Subject + was/were + not + Verb-ing
(?) Were/was + Subject + Verb-ing

Contoh :
* Roni was eating some meals when you came.
* The bus driver was driving quickly when you called me.


7. PAST PERFECT TENSE
Tense ini digunakan untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika atau sebelum peristiwa yang lain terjadi pada waktu lampau.
A. Kalimat Nominal
PENGGUNAAN KATA KERJA BANTU:
Rumus :
(+) Subject + had +been + complement
(-) Subject + had + not + been + Complement
(?) Had + Subject + been + Complement

Contoh :
* They had been in Garuda restaurant before the punkers came.
* She had been on the second floor of apartment when the telephone rang.
B. Kalimat Verbal
Rumus :
(+) Subject + had + Verb 3 + Complement
(-) Subject + had + not + Verb 3 + Complement
(?) Had + Subject + Verb 3 + Complement
Contoh :
* Santoso had written the novel.
* The workers had built the bridge.



8. PAST PERFECT CONTINUES TENSE
Tense ini digunakan untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang telah sedang berlangsung selama jangka waktu tertentu ketika peristiwa yang lain terjadi pada waktu lampau.
PENGGUNAAN KATA KERJA BANTU:
A. Kalimat Nominal
Sama dengan Nominal past perfect tense

B. Kalimat Verbal
Rumus :
(+) Subject + had + been + Verb-ing + Complement
(-) Subject + had + not + been + Verb-ing + Complement
(?) Had + Subject + been + Verb-ing + Complement
Contoh :
* Marissa had been swimming in the swimming pool

9. SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE
Tense ini digunakan untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang akan berlangsung, atau masih dalam bentuk rencana yang belum dilakukan. 
PENGGUNAAN KATA KERJA BANTU:
A. Kalimat Nominal
Rumus :
(+) Subject + will/Shall + be + Complement
(-) Subject + will/shall + not + be + Complement
(?) will/shall+ Subject + be + Complement
Contoh:
*She will be a doctor in the next year
*Jono will be angry when disturbed

B. Kalimat Verbal
Rumus : 
(+) Subject + will/shall + Verb 1 + Complement
(-) Subject + will/shall + not + Verb 1 + Complement
(?) Will/Shall + Subject + Verb 1 + Complement
Contoh :
* They will get an examination.
* Mr. Ibnu will feed the fish.

10. FUTURE CONTINUES TENSE
Tense ini digunakan untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung dalam waktu tertentu dimasa yang akan datang.
A. Kalimat Nominal
Sama dengan Nominal  future tense



B. Kalimat Verbal
Rumus :
(+) Subject + will/shall + be + Verb-ing + Complement
(-) Subject + will/shall + not + be + Verb-ing + Complement
(?) Will/shall + Subject + be + Verb-ing + Complement
Contoh :
* We will be fishing fish in the river at eight o’clock tomorrow.
* Susi will be getting award from the teachers at this time next week.

11. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
Tense ini digunakan untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sudah selesai dilakukan dimasa mendatang.
PENGGUNAAN KATA KERJA BANTU:
A. Kalimat Nominal
Rumus:
(+) Subject + will/shall + have +been + Complement
(-) Subject + will/shall + not + have  + been + Complement
(?) Will/shall + Subject + have + been + Complement
Contoh :
* They will have been in this garden at seven o’clock tomorrow..
B. Kalimat Verbal
Rumus :
(+) Subject + will/shall + have + Verb-3+ Complement
(-) Subject + will/shall + have + not + Verb-3 + Complement
(?) Will/shall + Subject + have + Verb-3+ Complement
Contoh :
* My family will have been staying in London for 3 years by next August.
* My little sister will have been sleeping for five hours by eight o’clock.

12. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUES TENSE
Tense ini digunakan untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang akan telah sedang berlangsung beberapa lama pada waktu yang akan datang.
A. Kalimat Nominal
Sama dengan Nominal future perfect tense
B. Kalimat Verbal
Rumus :
(+) Subject + will/shall + have + been + Verb-ing + Complement
(-) Subject + will/shall + have + not + been + Verb-ing + Complement
(?) Will/shall + Subject + have + been + Verb-ing + Complement
Contoh :
* My family will have been staying in London for 3 years by next August.
* My little sister will have been sleeping for five hours by eight o’clock.

13. PAST FUTURE TENSE
Tense ini digunakan untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang akan dilakukan dimasa lampau namun tidak terjadi.
A. Kalimat Nominal
PENGGUNAAN KATA KERJA BANTU:
Rumus :
(+) Subject + would/should + be + Complement
(-) Subject + would/should + not + be + Complement
(?) Would/should + Subject + be + Complement


Contoh :
* I would be nervous.
* My friends would be in the hospital..
. Kalimat Verbal
Rumus :
(+) Subject + would/should + Verb 1 + Complement
(-) Subject + would/should + not + Verb 1 + Complement
(?) Would/should + Subject + Verb 1 + Complement
Contoh :B
* My father would blame you last week.
* I would invite you to my party three days ago

14. PAST FUTURE CONTINUES TENSE
Tense ini digunakan untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung pada waktu tertentu dan  pada masa yang lampau.
A. Kalimat Nominal
Sama dengan Nominal past future tense
B. Kalimat Verbal
Rumus :
(+) Subject + would/should + be + Verb-ing + Complement
(-) Subject + would/should + not + be + Verb-ing + Complement
(?) Would/should + Subject + be + Verb-ing + Complement
Contoh :
* Jane would be cooking by this time yesterday
* Ahmad would be reading newspaper.




15. PAST FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
Tense ini digunakan untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang seharusnya telah selesai dilakukan pada masa lalu.
PENGGUNAAN KATA KERJA BANTU:
A. Kalimat Nominal
Rumus :
(+) Subject + would/should + have + been + Complement
(-) Subject + would/should + not + have + been + Complement
(?) Would/should + Subject + have + been + Complement
Contoh :
* Mr. James would have been here before he went to his office.

B. Kalimat Verbal
Rumus :
(+) Subject + would/should + have + Verb 3 + Complement
(-) Subject + would/should + not + have + Verb 3 + Complement
(?) Would/should + Subject + have + Verb 3 + Complement
Contoh :
* Michael would have made a good toy.
* Susan would have finished her examination.
16. PAST FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUES TENSE
Tense ini digunakan untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang seharusnya telah sedang berlangsung selama jangka waktu tertentu pada masa lampau.
A. Kalimat Nominal
Sama dengan Nominal past future perfect tense
B. Kalimat Verbal
Rumus :
(+) Subject + would/should + have + been + Verb-ing + complement
(-) Subject + would/should + not + have + been + Verb-ing + Complement
(?) Would/should + Subject + have + been + Verb-ing + Complement

Contoh :
* The red hat boy would have been catching the ball.
* I would have been staying here for 3 hours by yesterday.

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